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佛法双语工作坊 | 佛说四十二章经 第39章 教诲无差

2021年12月24日 19:16:00 点击:0
The Sutra of Forty-two Chapters - 39
佛說四十二章經 第39章
後漢 西域沙門迦葉摩騰 竺法蘭 同譯
Translated jointly by Indian Sramana Kasyapa Matanga and Dharmaraksa in the Later Han Dynasty

法师讲解  00:30 开始   单词 04:30 开始
第39章 教誨無差
No Disparities among Buddha’s Teachings
 
佛言。學佛道者。佛所言說。皆應信順。
The Buddha said, "Those who study the doctrine of the Buddhas will do well to believe and observe all that is taught by them.
 
譬如食蜜。中邊皆甜。吾經亦爾。
It is like unto honey; it is sweet within, it is sweet without, it is sweet throughout; so is the Buddhas' teaching."
 
英文版经文转载自 菩提字幕屋,英译者 D.T. Suzuki
English  version sourced from Bodhi Fansubs, translated by D.T. Suzuki
 
 
法师讲解:39 教诲無差
Commentary: No disparities among Buddha’s teachings
 
After enlightenment, Buddha Sakyamuni delivered his preaching over five teaching periods; initially the Buddha taught the great Bodhisavattvas the Avatamsaka Sutra about attaining buddhahood so that these high potential disciples could be able to transcend very quickly. Then the Buddha started the second teaching period to teach the Sravaka assembly the Agama Sutras, aiming at eliminating the Sravaka cultivators’ self attachment so that they could attain arhatship and become liberated. Then the Buddha wanted to convert the Sravaka disciples from Hinayana to Mahayana, so he started the third teaching period of Vaipulya to pave his teaching for Mahayana. Such teaching was meant to tell the Sravaka disciples that the Sravaka Dharma was only an expedient means for liberating oneself but not the masses. Although arhats had already extinguished their self attachment, they still demonstrated attachment to the dharma, which would need the wisdom of emptiness to cure. Therefore the Buddha started the fourth teaching period of Prajna Paramita, the dharma of wisdom. Having done that, the Buddha considered that disciples’ mentality was mature enough to accept Mahayana, so he started the fifth teaching period to tell the Lotus Sutra finally. We may want to know that Mahayana as expounded in the Lotus Sutra was the core value of the Buddha’s teaching, and what had been taught before were only meant for paving the way for Mahayana. When the teaching of the Lotus Sutra was finished, the Buddha was about to enter nirvana. However, he was still concerned that some people might have missed his teachings. Therefore, before entering nirvana the Buddha mercifully discoursed on the Nirvana Sutra in hope that all those whose karmic causes were mature could be relieved.
释迦牟尼佛成道后,先后五时说法,首先对法身大士宣说成佛的《华严经》,很快地把根器最高的弟子度化了,接着才对声闻众宣讲第二时《阿含经》,旨在破除他们的我执,令声闻行者证得阿罗汉果从而解脱。佛陀继而宣讲第三时方等经典切入大乘佛法,告诉声闻弟子声闻法是权宜之计而已,只能自度不能度他,希望他们可以回小向大。阿罗汉虽然已经破了我执,但对法仍然有所执著,需要以空性般若智慧破除法执,所以佛陀又开展了第四时般若说法。最后佛陀觉得众生的根器已经成熟可以接受大乘佛法,继而展开了第五时宣讲《法华经》,须知道《法华经》的大乘之道才是佛陀度化众生的本怀,前面所讲的都是为此作铺垫而已。讲毕《法华经》佛陀也快将涅槃了,但佛陀犹恐有所遗漏,在涅槃前又慈悲地宣讲了《涅槃经》,希望将全部因缘成熟的众生都度化了。
 
From here we can understand that in different times, the Buddha would preach in the most appropriate ways according to people’s potential instead of preaching with only a set of fixed doctrines. That’s why the Diamond Sutra says: “ there is also no fixed Dharma the Tathagata can expound.” The message is that the Buddha’s certain teaching is meant to eliminate people’s corresponding kind of attachment, and there is no such set of fixed doctrines which are universal to everyone. However, no matter which dharma method, it points to the same destination, and none of them is more superior than the other. In the Surangama Sutra - Chapter Five, the Buddha asked 25 great Bodhisattva and arhat disciples in an assembly how they reached their attainment. Practices of the four noble truths, discipline, contemplation of breathing, vipashyana, faculties of hearing, smell, and taste, etc, were among the methods that they had adopted. The Buddha commented that even though the methods being used were all different, they had no disparities. 
由此可见在不同时期,佛陀会以最切合众生根基的方式说法,而不是独孤一味采用一套固定的教义,故《金刚经》说:“亦无有定法。如来可说”,当中含义是如来所说的法都是为了破除众生某方面的执著才那么说,而不是有一套固定的道理适合所有众生的。但无论哪个法门,都是殊途同归,无分高下。在《楞严经 - 第五卷》中佛陀就问众中的二十五位大菩萨与阿罗汉弟子他们是怎样成就的,当中有修四圣谛、持戒、观呼吸、内观、耳根、鼻根、舌根等等。佛陀说他们的修行方法虽然各不相同,但没有优劣之分。
 
More than two thousand and five hundred years had lapsed since the Buddha’s emergence, and many different Buddhist sects had since evolved. As long as these sects observe the Buddha’s genuine teachings, they are supposed to be equally unique and admirable. Among these sects there is no best but the most suitable.  
从佛陀出世至今,已经两千五百多年,中间产生了很多不同的宗派,其实只要是佛陀的正法,都是同样殊胜的。当中没有最好,只有最适合自己的。

讲解 | 释宏添   北京天开寺
By Bhiksu Hong Tian,  Tiankai Temple




 
 

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